Reports on the feasibility and costs of decarbonising the
UK, Europe and the world—and the costs of not taking action.
It is clear from these reports that there is no need for new nuclear power stations (see also Why we don't need nuclear power) and that there are more than enough renewable sources of energy that are better and cheaper than nuclear power (see also Energy supply and conservation).
The reports are in reverse order of date. Those that describe how 100% of electricity may be provided from renewables, or nearly 100%, in any country, region or the world are marked '100%'. Although electricity is only a part of the energy we use, it is appropriate to focus on it here because that is the form of energy produced by nuclear power stations.
Reports that describe renewable energy scenarios for the UK are marked 'UK'.
See also reports about the potential of concentrating solar power as a major source of clean energy for the world.
Cutting the carbon
- 100% Here's how 139 countries could run on 100% wind, solar, and hydro power by 2050 (Science Alert, 2015-11-25). See also 139 Countries Could Get All of their Power from Renewable Sources (Scientific American, 2015-11-19). The world could be powered almost entirely by clean, renewable energy sources in the space of a few decades, and two engineers in the US say they've have figured out exactly how it can be done.
- 100% 100% renewable electricity by 2050 possible in France (RE New Economy, 2015-04-15). A somewhat “hidden” report was recently released that said France could be powered by 100% renewable energy by 2050 (note that this is for electricity, not all energy). See Vers un mix électrique 100% renouvelable en 2050 (PDF, ADEME, April 2015).
- 100% 100% renewables target could save major economies $500bn+ a year (RE New Economy, 2015-03-31). The adoption of targets for 100 per cent renewables by 2050 could deliver combined energy savings of more than $500 billion a year to the major economies of the EU, the US and China, and create millions of new jobs, a new study has found. The study, released this week by New Climate Institute and commissioned by Climate Action Network, also found that if all countries took action on renewables at this scale, global warming would not cross the 2°C threshold beyond which scientists predict would result in dangerous and irreversible changes to the earth’s climate.
- 100% Plan outlines low-carbon future for Germany (New York Times, 2014-11-30). Scientists have developed a comprehensive computer model that simulates German energy supply and demand, in a bid to establish whether it is feasible for Germany to rely on renewable energy sources to power its economy and meet its carbon dioxide emission reduction targets. ... Using real data from 2011 and 2012, the researchers have run millions of simulations to optimize the model. They say they have demonstrated that there are several economically viable ways to achieve a low-carbon future, using existing technologies.
- Report: How can you build lots of renewables and keep the lights on without spending too much money? (Greenpeace Energy Desk, 2014-03-20). An analysis by consultants Energynautics for Greenpeace based on European weather information for 2011 and data from the International Energy Agency (IEA) suggests it is possible to get 77% of Europe’s electricity from renewable sources by 2030; through smart grids, demand management, gas backup and big changes in how our power grid works. The model suggests that by taking a European approach (rather than planning by country) and using a (relatively) new type of power cable the cost of integrating new renewables into the grid can be significantly cut.
- 100% Phase out of nuclear power in Europe: from vision to reality (PDF, Global 2000, March 2014). This meta-study builds on related existing modelling work (i.e. the study “energy [r]evolution, a sustainable EU 27 energy outlook” by Teske et al. (2012a), published by Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council) and on an extensive literature-review. In a first step the literature review includes prestigious studies on meeting long-term climate, renewable energy source (RES), and/or energy efficiency targets. In a second step related aspects (RES, energy efficiency, infra-structural prerequisites) are covered and examined for derivable implications at the European level, fo-cussing on supply and demand for electricity. Third, legal aspects of a nuclear power phase-out until 2030 in the EU are analysed. The study ends with a derivation of recommendations for practical policy implementation in accordance with the above mentioned European targets.
- 100% IEA says wind and solar can carry bulk of energy transformation (RE New Economy, 2014-02-27). The International Energy Agency (IEA) has released a report in which it concludes that the integration of large amounts of renewable energy can be achieved by any country at only a small increase on whole system costs, compared with the current fossil-fuel heavy electricity systems. Making the conclusion even more startling is that the IEA used present-day costs for solar PV and wind, with the two most widely-deployed renewable energy technologies set to provide the bulk of the generating capacity in these transformed electricity systems.
- 100% Even India could reach nearly 100% renewables by 2051 (RE New Economy, 2014-01-17).
- 100% Zero Carbon Britain: Rethinking the Future (Centre for Alternative Technology, 2013). Presents new research in two key areas 'keeping the lights on' with a variable renewable energy supply, and 'feeding ourselves properly' on a low carbon diet.
- 100% Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energy infrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight (PDF, Mark Z. Jacobsona and others, 2013-02-18,to appear in Energy Policy). See also Converting New York State entirely to renewable energy: What would it look like? (RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 2013-03-13).
- 100% UK New policy can put the EU on track to reach 100% renewable energy (WWF, 2013-02-13). WWF report: “Putting the EU on track for 100% renewable energy”. By 2030, the EU could be reducing its energy use by more than a third and generate almost half of the remainder from renewables. The post-2020 climate and energy policies needed to deliver this vision would help the EU to reduce its €573bn external fossil fuel bill and cut its greenhouse gas emissions in half.
- 100% Report: solar could meet all the world’s electricity needs in 2050 using under one percent of world’s land (Think Progress, 2013-01-17).
- 100% UK Energy [r]evolution: a sustainable EU 27 energy outlook (German National Centre for Aerospace, Energy and Transport Research for Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council, 2012-10-24). The 2012 EU Energy [R]evolution report, carried out for Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council by the German National Centre for Aerospace, Energy and Transport Research, demonstrates how Europe would gain nearly half a million extra energy sector jobs by 2020 if it prioritises a system largely made up of renewables and energy efficiency over nuclear power and fossil fuels. Other benefits include long-term savings for consumers and improved climate stability.
- Less is more : energy security after oil (The Sustainable Building Association, 2012).
- 100% World in transition – a social contract for sustainability (German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU), 2011). See, in particular, Factsheet 2: transforming energy systems (PDF). The report shows that a global transformation of energy systems which gives all the world’s people access to modern energy services while limiting human-induced warming to 2 °C is technically feasible and economically viable. The long-term economic costs of a global decarbonisation of energy systems amount to just a few per cent of global GDP. Ambitious global climate change mitigation is possible without nuclear power. The WBGU advises against nuclear energy use.
- From coal, oil and gas to green energy (Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy, and Building, 2011-02-24). Describes how Denmark can achieve its independence from coal, oil and gas by 2050 and significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions.
- Manifesto Negawatt (Association Negawatt, France, 2011). Demonstrates that it is possible to free France from CO2 emissions from energy production and virtually eliminate its dependence on fossil fuels by 2050, and eliminating the need for nuclear power in two decades.
- 100% Green energy – the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels (PDF, Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy, September 2010). See also Denmark’s road map for fossil fuel independence (Solutions, July 2011). Denmark can remove fossil fuels entirely from its energy system—including transport—by 2050 without introducing nuclear energy or carbon capture and storage. The overall cost of achieving fossil fuel independence is only marginally more (on the order of 0.5 percent of GDP in 2050) than predicted total energy-related expenditure in a “business-as-usual” scenario. This near equivalence in cost is due primarily to expected increases in the price of fossil fuels. The Danish government has adopted the proposed strategy.
- 100% The energy report: 100% renewable energy by 2050 (PDF, WWF, 2011). It is feasible to obtain all the world's energy from renewable energy by 2050 and it will be affordable.
- UK Positive energy: how renewable electricity can transform the UK by 2030 (PDF, WWF, October 2011). See also Clean energy future 'within our grasp' (WWF press release, 2011-10-25). Renewable sources of energy could supply nearly 90% of the UK’s electricity demand by 2030.
- 100% UK The power of Scotland secured (PDF, report by Garrad Hassan, commissioned by Friends of the Earth, Scotland, September 2010). 100% of Scotland's electricity may be met from renewables, even with future electrification of heat and of transport, and there is considerable potential for exports. Security of supply can be assured without any coal, gas or nuclear generating stations in Scotland. Connections outside Scotland are justified by the export potential. See also The power of Scotland secured (press release from Friends of the Earth Scotland, September 2010).
- 100% The advanced energy [r]evolution: a sustainable energy outlook for Japan (Greenpeace International and the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), September 2011). Enhanced efficiency and renewable energy supply can not only meet Japan’s energy demand, but also help minimize the effects of climate change and create green jobs and a sustainable clean future. It is possible to achieve a renewable energy future by: phasing out nuclear power generation by 2012; generating 43% of electricity from renewable energy by 2020; reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by 2020 (compared with 1990).
- Renewable energy – predictions and reality (PDF, Agentur für Erneuerbare Energien e.V., May 2009). This report evaluates German, European and global energy forecasts from the last few decades and compares the predicted levels with the actual development of renewable energy sources. The majority of the 50 forecasts examined underestimated the proportion of energy provided by renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources often reached the predicted values several years in advance and surpassed these values by several hundred percent.
- UK Solar revolution strategy for the UK (PDF, Solar Trade Association, 2011-06-02). "Our Alternative Solar Revolution Strategy shows that a solar revolution is possible, affordable and sensible for the UK."
- 100% Special report renewable energy sources (SRREN): summary for policy makers (IPCC, 2011-05-09). Studies of renewable sources of power and their potential have consistently found that the total global technical potential for renewable energy is substantially higher than global energy demand. See also UN Secretary-General: renewables can end energy poverty (RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 2011-08-25).
- 100% Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe (PDF, 740 KB, Dominik Heide and others, Renewable Energy 35, 2483-2489, 2010). The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite behaviors are able to counter balance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counter balancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases.
- A solar transition is possible (PDF, Institute for Policy Research & Development, March 2011). We submit that the models provided here present a compelling case that the road to a sustainable future lies in concerted
efforts to move from fossil fuels to renewable wind and solar energy sources. This transition can occur in two or three decades and requires very little fossil fuel (on the order of one half of a year’s present global consumption) and no revolutionary technological innovations. Since our model uses conservative estimates, the true renewable potential that is available to our society may be even more optimistic than we show. The primary anticipated obstacles to implementing this transition are non-technical, including lack of political will and economic prioritization.
- 100% UK The power of Scotland secured (report for Friends of the Earth Scotland, RSPB, and WWF, by Paul Gardner, 2010). Scotland could phase out all fossil fuel and nuclear power by 2030, maintain a secure electricity supply and generate significant revenue from renewable exports, according to new research by one of the world's leading energy consultants, Garrad Hassan.
- 100% Going completely renewable: is it possible (let alone desirable)? (Benjamin K. Sovacool and Charmaine Watts, The Electricity Journal, 22(4), 95-111, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.tej.2009.03.011). With the right mix of leadership and policy, a completely renewable electricity sector for New Zealand and the United States is feasible, achievable, and desirable.
- Battle of the grids (Greenpeace, 2011-01-18). "It is a how to manual for the kind of system we need to deliver 68 percent renewable energy by 2030 and nearly 100 percent by 2050."
- 100% The energy report: 100% renewable energy by 2050 (WWF, February 2011). This report is a WWF and Ecofys collaborative work which shows that all of the world’s energy needs could be provided cleanly, renewably and economically. See WWF press release.
- 100% Pathways towards a 100% renewable electricity system: summary for policymakers (PDF, German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU), January 2011). See also Executive summary and recommendations (PDF); Technoport talks: Prof. Olav Hohmeyer, Norway Europe's green battery (You Tube, 2011-10-12). This report concludes that, in Germany, a 100 % fully renewable energy supply is possible, safe and affordable. Scenarios are for 2050 but Prof Hohmeyer says targets could be achieved by 2030. If 100% renewables is achievable in Germany, it should certainly be achievable in the UK with its superabundance of renewable sources of power. The report says that the need for base load power plants will decrease in a system with a high share of renewable energies. The high variability of renewable energies will require a substantially higher level of flexibility on the part of all conventional power plants. ... a permanently available and consistent base load is no longer required.
- Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits? (report by Jonathan M. Cullen, Julian M. Allwood, and Edward H. Borgstein ofthe Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 2011-01-12). This paper aims to draw attention to the opportunity for major reduction in energy demand, by presenting an analysis of how much of current global energy demand could be avoided. ... The result demonstrates that 73% of global energy use could be saved by practically achievable design changes to passive systems. This reduction could be increased by further efficiency improvements in conversion devices. A list of the solutions required to achieve these savings is provided.
- 100% UK Scotland’s electricity needs – can they be met from renewables without
recourse to nuclear? (Nuclear Free Local Authorities Briefing, 2010-07-07). The report suggests that Scotland can produce 100% of its electricity requirements from renewable sources.
- 100% Zero carbon Britain 2030 (PDF, 5 MB, Centre for Alternative Technology, June 2010). This report examines how the UK can meet its electricity and heating requirements through efficient service provision, while still decreasing carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other emissions.
- Energy [r]evolution: a sustainable world energy outlook (Greenpeace International,
European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), Third Edition, June 2010). Describes how world energy supplies can be largely decarbonised by 2050.
- UK The Offshore Valuation: a valuation of the UK’s offshore renewable energy resource (PDF, 5 MB, The Offshore Valuation Group, May 2010). We assessed the extent of the practical resource through a detailed mapping process based on five electricity generating technologies: wind with fixed and floating foundations; wave; tidal range; and tidal stream. The full practical resource - 2,131 TWh/year - exceeds current UK electricity demand six times over.
- 100% Roadmap 2050 (European Climate Foundation, with others, in 3 volumes, April 2010). The project finds that in each of the low/zero-carbon pathways, using 40%, 60%, 80% or 100% renewable energy sources, the future cost of electricity is comparable to the future cost of electricity under the current carbon-intensive infrastructure. Roadmap 2050 also shows that with the necessary investments in energy efficiency and Europe’s power network infrastructure, a decarbonised power sector using available technologies can provide the same high level of reliability that consumers enjoy today, in all low/zero carbon pathways. Much of the money would have to be spent early and savings would come later. The benefits of the low-carbon transition far outweigh the challenges. The 40%, 60% and 80% scenarios include nuclear power and CCS. The 100% renewable scenario does not include nuclear power but it does include some use of CCS in heavy industry. Cost estimates appear to overlook the subsidies that are being given to nuclear power. See also Europe's energy in 2050: cutting CO2 by 80% no more expensive than business as usual (Financial Times, 2010-04-13).
- 100% Re-thinking 2050: a 100% renewable energy vision for the European Union (European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), April 2010). Shows how Europe could be powered entirely by renewable energy by 2050.
- The Fourth Revolution: Energy (Energy Autonomy film, March 2010).
- A low carbon revolution: the Welsh Assembly Government energy policy statement (PDF, 1.2 MB, March 2010). A statement by the Welsh Assembly Government says that Wales could generate twice its electricity needs from renewable sources of power.
- 100% 100% renewable electricity: a roadmap to 2050 for Europe and North Africa (PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC), the Potstdam Institute for Cimate Impact Research (PIK), the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), and the European Climate Forum (ECF), March 2010). As its name suggests, this report shows how Europe and North Africa could meet all of its electricity needs from renewable sources using proven technologies that are available now. The main changes that are required to make this happen are in the economic, legal and regulatory frameworks.
- 100% Powering a green planet: sustainable energy, made interactive (Scientific American, November 2009). This interactive presentation introduces "A path to sustainable energy by 2030", an article by Mark Z. Jacobson and Mark A. Delucchi in the November 2009 issue of Scientific American. Supplies of wind and solar energy on accessible land dwarf the energy consumed by people around the globe. The authors’ plan calls for 3.8 million large wind turbines, 90,000 solar plants, and numerous geothermal, tidal and rooftop photovoltaic installations worldwide. The cost of generating and transmitting power would be less than the projected cost per kilowatt-hour for fossil fuel and nuclear power. Shortages of a few specialty materials, along with lack of political will, loom as the greatest obstacles. See also:
- "Meeting the world’s energy needs entirely with wind, water, and solar power", Mark A. Delucchi and Mark Z. Jacobson, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69 (4), 30–40, 2013, DOI: 10.1177/0096340213494115.
- "Evaluating the feasibility of meeting all global energy needs with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials", M. Z. Jacobson and M. A. Delucchi, Energy Policy, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.11.040 (2010).
- "Evaluating the feasibility of meeting all global energy needs with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies", M. A. Delucchi and M. Z. Jacobson, Energy Policy, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.11.045 (2010).
- Study: shifting the world to 100% clean, renewable energy by 2030 – here are the numbers (Stanford University press release, 2009-10-20, with links to other sources).
- Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security (Mark Z. Jacobson, Energy & Environmental Science, 2009, 2, 148–173).
- 100% Green Energies: 100% Renewables by 2050 (Institute of Science in Society, September 2009).
- 100% UK The power of Scotland renewed: clean, green energy for the nation's future (PDF, 1.2 MB, Friends of the Earth Scotland, RSPB, World Development Movement, WWF, July 2009). This report shows that it is possible to have a clean, green energy supply in Scotland. By 2030 renewable energy can meet between 60% and 143% of Scotland’s projected annual electricity demand, depending of the level of investment in energy saving and new renewables. The analysis also demonstrates that it is entirely plausible that no large-scale fossil fired generating capacity would remain online by 2030.
- UK Managing Variability (PDF, 402 KB, Greenpeace, WWF, RSPB, Friends of the Earth, July 2009; Summary, PDF, 443 KB). This is a report by David Milborrow, showing that fluctuations in wind strength can be managed technically and at modest and declining cost, that high proportions of wind power are feasible in the UK's energy mix, and that new technological developments could allow for a steadily increasing use of wind power and the phasing out of conventional carbon based fuels as a backup technology. See also Impact of intermittency: how wind variability could change the shape of British and Irish electricity markets (PDF, 862 KB, Pöyry Energy Consulting, July 2009) and Operating the system beyond 2020 (PDF, 1.1 MB, National Grid, June 2009)..
- 100% Global potential for wind-generated electricity (PDF, 1.9 MB, Xi Lua, Michael B. McElroya, and Juha Kiviluomac, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Published online before print June 22, 2009, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0904101106). A network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply more than 40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity and more than 5 times total global use of energy in all forms. There is additional potential in offshore wind farms.
- 100% Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential (PDF, 3.5 MB, European Environment Agency, 2009. The report may also be downloaded from here.). This report calculates that the "economically competitive potential" of wind power in Europe comfortably exceeds projected demands. It appears that, in principle, it could meet all of Europe's energy needs as well.
- Energy [r[evolution: a sustainable USA energy outlook (PDF, 1.4 MB, Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), March 2009). This report shows how the U.S. and the world can cut global warming pollution to the levels needed to prevent the worst effects of global warming while also meeting the energy needs of a growing world and phasing out nuclear power.
- Energy [r]evolution: a sustainable global energy outlook (PDF, 4.7 MB, Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), October 2008). This edition of Energy [R]evolution Scenarios provides a detailed analysis of the energy efficiency potential and choices in the transport sector.
- Ten Technologies To Save The Planet, Chris Goodall, London: Green Profile, 2008, ISBN-13: 978-1846688683. This book shows in some detail that technologies such as wind power, solar power in desert regions, good insulation for buildings, and more, are probably sufficient to stabilize and perhaps reduce the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Things like carbon capture and storage (CCS) need development but most of the technologies that are discussed are already proven. What is chiefly lacking is the political will to put them into effect.
- Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security (PDF, 1.8 MB, Mark Z. Jacobson, Energy & Environmental Science 2009. Also published on the web). This paper reviews and ranks major proposed energy-related solutions to global warming, air pollution, mortality, and energy security, whilst considering other impacts of those solutions. The article concludes that the use of wind, concentrating solar power (CSP), geothermal, tidal, PV, wave, and hydro to provide electricity for electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles and, by extension, electricity for the residential, industrial, and commercial sectors, will result in the most benefit among the options considered. The combination of these technologies should be advanced as a solution to global warming, air pollution, and energy. Coal-CCS and nuclear offer less benefit thus represent an opportunity cost loss, and the biofuel options provide no certain benefit and the greatest negative impacts.
- UK Implications of the UK meeting its 2020 renewable energy target (PDF, 734 KB, Pöyry Energy (Oxford) Ltd for WWF-UK and Greenpeace-UK, August 2008). This report concludes that the planned growth in renewables and energy conservation can ensure adequate generating capacity in the UK until at least the mid 2020s (see also Renewables and efficiency could plug UK energy gap (RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 2008-08-08)).
- 100% Carbon-Free and Nuclear-Free: a Roadmap for US Energy Policy, Arjun Makhijani, IEER Press, ISBN 978-1-57143-173-8, 2007. See also an article by Arjun Makhijani, which is based on the book: Nuclear isn't necessary, Nature Reports Climate Change, 2008-10-02. The book is a detailed analysis of how the USA may decarbonise its economy and phase out nuclear power at the same time.
- Futu[r]e investment: a sustainable investment plan to save the climate (PDF, 4.2 MB, Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), July 2007). This report shows that investment in renewables pays off quite quickly due to massive savings in fuel costs. In fact, a 'business as usual' mix in the world power generation sector would result in 10 times higher fuel costs, when compared to the additional investment needed to emplement the energy [r]evolution pathway.
- 100% UK Zero carbon Britain: an alternative energy strategy (PDF, 4.2 MB, Tim Helweg-Larsen, Centre for Alternative Technology, Graduate School of the Environment, July 2007). This report describes how the UK may reduce emissions of CO2 to zero within 20 years using proven technologies and without nuclear power. Although it does not recommend total self-sufficiency in energy for the UK, it shows that that is possible as a point of reference for discussions about energy policy.
- Climate solutions: WWF's vision for 2050 (PDF, 2.2 MB, WWF, Karl Mallon, Greg Bourne, Richard Mott, May 2007). Shows how deep cuts may be made in the world's CO2 emissions without using nuclear power. There is substantially more potential in concentrating solar power than is recognised in this report.
- 100% Tackling climate change in the US (American Solar Energy Society, Charles F. Kutscher, Editor, January 2007). Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have the potential to provide most, if not all, of the US carbon emissions reductions that will be needed to help limit the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to 450 to 500 ppm. On page 17, it says: "… analysts evaluated the solar resource in the Southwest [of the US] and … found that CSP [concentrating solar power] could provide nearly 7,000 GW of capacity, or about seven times the current total US electric capacity." (emphasis added). Sections of this report about CSP are based on the "Solar task force report" (below).
- The future of geothermal
energy: impact of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)
on the United States in the 21st century (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 2006. Download: PDF, 14.4 MB). A comprehensive MIT-led study of the
potential for geothermal energy within the United States has found that
mining the huge amounts of heat that reside as stored thermal energy in the
Earth's hard rock crust could supply a substantial portion of the
electricity the United States will need in the future, probably at
competitive prices and with minimal environmental impact.
- Global energy [r]evolution: a
blueprint for solving global warming (PDF,
7.8 MB, Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy Council (EREC),
January 2007). This
report shows that it is not only economically feasible, but also
economically desirable, to cut U.S. CO2 emissions by almost 75%
within the next 43 years. These reductions can be achieved without nuclear
power, and while virtually ending U.S. dependence on coal. Contrary to
popular opinion, a massive uptake of renewable energy and efficiency
improvements alone can solve our global warming problem. All that is missing
is the right policy support from the President and Congress.
- UK George Monbiot's book, Heat, describes in some detail how we can decarbonise the economy without
using nuclear power. At present, there is no clear solution to the problem
of aviation, apart from grounding the majority of planes now in the sky.
- High Stakes: Designing emissions pathways to reduce the risk of dangerous
climate change (Dr Paul Baer with Dr Michael Mastrandrea of the
Institute for Public Policy Research, 2006-11-08). This report outlines
precisely how large and how fast cuts in greenhouse gas emissions will need
to be if we are to have a high chance of avoiding dangerous climate change.
It features fresh quantitative analysis of the relationships between global
greenhouse gas emissions trajectories, atmospheric greenhouse gas
concentrations, and temperature changes.
- UK A renewable electricity system for the UK: a response to the 2006 energy review (Dr Mark Barrett, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, April 2006). This report shows how the UK can meet all its needs for electricity and make deep cuts in CO2 emissions from electricity generation, without building new nuclear power stations.
- A new energy future (Report from Environment California) This report
describes how America can migrate to renewable forms of energy and
conservation of energy from its current dependence on fossil fuels. It looks
as if it could have been more ambitious.
ahead of the curve: corporate strategies that address climate change (PDF,
2.3 MB, Andrew J. Hoffman, prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate
Change, October 2006). How companies can develop effective climate
strategies and identify climate-related market opportunities.
- UK Decarbonising the UK: energy for a climate conscious future (PDF, 1.8 MB,
Report for the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, October 2006). This report shows that a 60% reduction in
the UK’s carbon dioxide emissions, including emissions from aviation, is
technically, socially and economically viable.
- The world in 2050: implications of global growth for carbon emissions and
climate change policy (PDF, 681 KB, Report by John Hawksworth for
PriceWaterhouseCoopers, September 2006). John Hawksworth says: "Our
analysis suggests that there are technologically feasible and relatively
low-cost options for controlling carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Estimates
suggest that the level of GDP might be reduced by no more than around 2-3% in
2050 if this strategy was followed, equivalent to sacrificing only around a
year of economic growth for the sake of reducing carbon emissions in 2050 by
around 60% compared to our baseline scenario". This report is the
subject of an article in the Guardian: Cost of
saving the planet: a year's growth, 2006-09-29.
- UK Decentralised power: an energy revolution for the 21st century (PDF, 4.7 MB, Greenpeace UK, July 2006). This report shows how the UK can meet its needs for electricity withou using nuclear power.
- UK TRANS-CSP report for
the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservartion and
Nuclear Safety (June 2006). This report shows in detail, country by country, how Europe, including the UK, can
generate all the electricity it needs, make deep cuts in CO2 emissions, and
phase out nuclear power at the same time.
- UK A
bright future: Friends of the Earth’s electricity sector model for 2030 (FoE, March 2006, 162 Kb PDF). Shows how the UK can meet its electricity
needs from renewable sources without nuclear power.
- Solar task force report (PDF, 3.2 MB, Western Governors' Association, January 2006). This report is the basis for sections about CSP in "Tackling climate change in the US" (above).
- UK Mirage and oasis: energy choices in an age of global warming (PDF, 1.2 MB, New Economics Foundation, June 2005). This report shows that the real cost of nuclear power is much higher than commonly claimed, and that there are more than enough renewable sources of electricity to meet our needs.
- UK Wind power in the UK (PDF, 1.5 MB, Sustainable Development Commission, May 2005, revised November 2005). Wind power could in principle meet all of the UK's demand for electricity.
- * MED-CSP report for the
German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservartion and Nuclear
Safety (April 2005). This report examines the solar power resources in the
- 100% Energy Rich Japan, report commissioned by Greenpeace International and Greenpeace Japan, October 2003. Japan may obtain all of its energy from renewable sources.
- Links to other relevant reports may be found in the True Cost Clearinghouse from the Science & Environmental Health Network.
- More links to reports about the feasibility and costs of decarbonising the world's economy may be found in two briefing documents from No2nuclearpower.org.uk:
Business-as-usual is not an option
- At-a-glance: the
Stern Review (BBC report with links to a PDF summary of the report and
Sir Nicholas Stern's presentation, 2006-10-30. The full report and other
information can be downloaded from the UK Government's Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change.). The Stern Review is a substantial report by a respected economist, commissioned by the UK
Government, showing that the cost of
not taking action to tackle climate change is likely to be much higher than
the cost of action.
change - the costs of inaction (PDF, 262 KB, Report for FoE UK by Frank
Ackerman and Elizabeth Stanton, Global Development and Environment Institute,
Tufts University, USA, 2006-10-11). This report shows that the costs of not
taking action to tackle climate change are likely to be much higher than the
costs of taking action.